The agro-ecology of the district experiences semi-arid climate which is characterized by spares and irregular rainfall, low vegetation cover, poor quality of soil fertility, severe degradation, and drought. J�� Rome; 2011. This means rural households who own more TLU have more probability to remain without diversifying their livelihood options into on-farm + off-farm and/or combination of the three (on-farm + off-farm + non-farm) livelihood strategies but able to diversify into on-farm + non-farm income activities. Adepoju AO, Obayelu OA. 0000071414 00000 n Ellis F. The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. Rural livelihood diversification in West Bengal: determinants and constraints. ISSN 2277-8616. Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. Lanjouw JO, Lanjouw P. The rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries. versification activities. Agric Econ Res Rev. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. A survey of 133 sample households, and four KIIs were employed. This is somewhat at odds with the trajectories envisaged in agricultural policies in Ethiopia and other developing countries, which prioritize production of cash crops (and food crops for commercial purposes) as a pathway for development and food security. It is clear that the more households are distant from market centre, the more disadvantaged from diversifying their livelihood income into non-farm options. Rural livelihood diversification strategies in Ethiopia According to Ellis (2000), livelihood activities can be categorized into three namely on farm, nonfarm and off farm. 3.2 Rural livelihoods diversification. The distribution of income and wealth status play crucial role in households’ choice over which type of livelihood diversification strategy to select and apply. Food Policy, 26, pp 333-350 Food Policy, 26, pp 333-350 More like this Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to 0000023136 00000 n Methodology 2.1. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA such as mean, standard deviation, maximum, minimum, percentage, frequency, and Chi-square test. 2010. Chambers JK. Privacy This paper examines livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries. J Dev Agric Econ. Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. 2001;26(4):315–31. FAO-ESA Working Paper, 2015: p. 15-02. In Ethiopia, farm households engage and pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges such as drought. That is, those livelihood diversification strategies in Ethiopia in general between 1700-2000 masl, are considered as dry Woina and study area in particular were less researched. Part of Interpretation of the odds-ratio for the distance from nearest market centre indicated that keeping other factors constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the smallholder farmers to choose on-farm + off-farm and/or combination of the three (on-farm + off-farm + non-farm) livelihood diversification strategies decreases by factor of 3.042 and .046 as the distance from the household’s home to market centre increases by one km. Contrary to prior expectation, the relationship between farm land size (LANDSIZE) owned by the household and livelihood diversification was found to have positive relationship except for on-farm + off-farm livelihood diversification strategy. Cite this article. Cite this item: Degarege, G. A. Article  Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. Based on data for almost 300 households this paper explores associations among income diversification, household perceptions of livelihood risks, and changes in consumption outcomes across two points in time in post-famine Ethiopia. Haggblade S, Hazell P, Reardon T. The rural non-farm economy: prospects for growth and poverty reduction. • Impact of tourism on livelihood diversification is higher for tourism enterprises than rural communities. The study was aimed to identify the livelihood strategies and their level of diversification in western tip of Ethiopia. The present study explores further … Gender and Livelihood Diversification in Rural Ethiopia pour 70,75 €. Khatun D, Roy BC. in Ethiopia. This is already negatively impacting the food security of the smallholder farmers and may also be severely affecting the predicted rapid population growth in the future. The result of this study is in line with the findings by [23]. Rural livelihood diversification in West Bengal: nature and extent. Methodology: Multi stage sampling techniques was used to selected sample respondents. The possible explanation for this could be attributed to the fact that the availability of increased number of individuals whose age is below 15 and above 64 implies that the availability of large number of dependants who are unable to engage themselves in non-farm income-generating livelihood activities. This study investi- gates the factors that determine the probability that a farm household participates in non-agricultural income diversification activities in Ethiopia. AZ��� Livelihood Adaptation and Diversification in Wolaita, Ethiopia (submitted to Human Ecology) Paper II: Ayele Tessema, 2008: Risk sharing, ceremonies and livelihoods: Funeral and wedding costs in Wolaita, Ethiopia (submitted to The Journal of Development Studies). University of Otago. Retrouvez Gender and Livelihood Diversification in Rural Ethiopia: Women's Participation in Non-Farm Activity:The Case of Shebel Berenta Woreda, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. This research was therefore proposed with the aim of generating location specific data on livelihood strategies and its determinants in Borena district of southern Oromia, … J Agric Econ. Finally, 485 sample households were selected using proportional sampling followed by systematic random sampling technique from the study Kebeles. Google Scholar. Khatun D, Roy B. 0000000972 00000 n In line with this, the coefficient of dependency households (DEPENDANT) was found to have negative relationship with on-farm + off-farm choices of household livelihood diversification strategies and statistically significant at 5% probability level. %PDF-1.5 Without adopting context based livelihood diversification strategies; the challenge it presents could neither meet nor attain household food security and improve livelihood security. Majority (83.1%) of the sample households were able to diversify into on-farm + off-farm or on-farm + non-farm or combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood strategies, whereas 16.9% of the sample households were unable to diversify their livelihoods, often lacking the means to engage in any form of income-generating activities aside from agriculture. startxref However, livelihood diversification is a complex phenomenon and it involves different forms. Kebele is the lowest administrative unit in Ethiopia as peasant association in other countries. J Dev Agric Econ. *�Bh)*/Rċچ��P%�P���0sf�9��}��ƞm��x����/�������w���,�1�y�Y������}���Y>+go����PJ�6Q�9��?K%l>{�����.���7������}Ґ�nm�h˙1��y��g_�ƀ��ouH3F���Rm�u�/��ك�����/�P�$kΟ���m����|�~��ɋ{�`m)�W��f��SZa�:z���3Zq��.a�g���_��)���~����T�0 ̷���Ö'*��#dLB��ӟ��M�s(%_�� /� `�wǶ��*fB�~{�?pq�\ uY^X������z���t��E�qZV��uM�۲�θC@�nS������E��I�08��{�PB Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. 2016;8(10):228–40. Rural livelihoods diversification has generally occurred as a result of an increased importance of off-farm wage labor in household livelihood portfolio or through the development of new forms of on-farm/on-site production of non-conventional marketable commodities. The VIF for all the continuous variables were less than 10 and greater than one. Reduced vulnerability through market development, risk mitigation and livelihood diversification. Multinomial logistic (MNL) regression analysis was estimated to analyse the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies among rural households analyse determinant factors for households to choose and adopt livelihood diversification strategies where the dependent variable has multiple outcomes [j = 1, …, 4, where a household choice is relying on j(1) = on-farm alone; j(2) = on-farm + off-farm; j(3) = on-farm + non-farm; j(4) = on-farm + off-farm + non-farm income-generating activities]. The single most important activity is trading, while labouring for others is also important. title = {Diversification of livelihood strategies and the transformation of pastoralist life among Afar women in Baadu - Ethiopia}, publisher = {Department of Geography, University of Bonn}, year = 2015, month = apr, series = {Development Geography Occasional Paper}, volume = 04, Therefore, all the hypothesized explanatory variables (Table 1) which were expected to affect the choice and adoption of household livelihood diversification strategies were included in the MNL analysis using SPSS version 20, and only the statistically significant variables are discussed (Table 3). Livelihood diversification in Borana pastoral communities of Ethiopia - prospects and challenges @inproceedings{Gemtessa2007LivelihoodDI, title={Livelihood diversification in Borana pastoral communities of Ethiopia - prospects and challenges}, author={K. Gemtessa and E. Bezabih and W. Tiki}, year={2007} } Before running the MNL model, seven continuous and nine discrete/binary explanatory variables were checked for multicollinearity using Variation Inflation Factor (VIF) and contingency coefficient, respectively. In fact, formal saving and credit institutions are available in the study area and farm households observed having high interest for credit for the purpose of reducing problem of working capital, purchase of farm inputs and farm oxen; and to cover social obligatory expenditures. Udoh, N. and S. Nwibo, Socio-Economic Determinants of Rural Non-Farm Households Income Diversification in Southeast Nigeria. Keywords: Livelihood diversification, Composite Entropy Index, Two-Stage Least Square model, household income, farm households, Kembata Tambaro Zone, Ethiopia. On the other hand, 11.5, 59.8 and 11.8% of the sample households were able to diversify into on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm, and on-farm + off-farm + non-farm income-generating livelihood strategies, respectively (Table 2). Sustainable Livelihood Diversification for Tourism is a catalyst for sustainable development. Furthermore, results of the multinomial logistic regression model attested that households’ choice and adoption of livelihood diversification strategies were positively determined by the households’ level of education, access to credit, income, membership of cooperatives, remittance income, farmland, access to irrigation and access to credit, whereas age, dependency ratio, family size, access to extension services, distance to market, livestock ownership and agro-ecology were found to have negative relationship and significantly affecting households’ choice and adoption of livelihood diversification strategies. This study was conducted to assess the various factors that affect households’ decisions on livelihood diversifications the case of Kuormuk and Homosha districts of Assosa zone, Beneshangul Gumuz regional state, western Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to analyse the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies among rural households in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia. 2017;16:208–21. Although still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly unable to provide a sufficient means of survival in rural areas. Agric Econ. A mixed research method of sequential transformative strategy was used. Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. Surveys and key informant interviews (KII) were sources of data. Their study uses small sample and focuses only on areas affected by famine during the survey years. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia; 2011. Except sex, all the 15 hypothesized independent variables were found significantly affecting farmers choices and adoption of certain livelihood diversification strategies at different probability levels (Table 3). (2019). Majority of the households in the study area have unevenly diversified sources of income. 62 0 obj Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. SE�I��+��Ϟ����ۧ�c���8�~�Cv6���Pw�Vϳ����ߡ�����o�/ ��V{FD������p���������_;6d�O�V�!٪�1��I� �;��A���)��>�����V��ؾy1�d��$8�A9R�7����|�cU�3�AV�����|�� ��d�R���{λYq56��jʷQsu�P��jt�q�U6��D�Gpu��rUg}���a��.7 `xps�ލ���e�T�������M�V�N�Z�6��H\ѷvn�UU� 0000131433 00000 n Interpretation of the odds-ratio depicted that, if other factors held constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the probability of the households to diversify into on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + non-farm income diversified livelihood strategies decreases by a factor of 3.108 and .042, respectively, as the family size of the household increases by one. Keywords: livelihood strategies, diversification, cluster analysis, smallholder, Ethiopia 1. There are a lot of pushes and pull factors that affect rural livelihood … Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: a multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics. 8�b��@��D�^'�L��f �`���N��–Zɬm�1$�H`��!O� �l �8�ߨU�>��G�SiS��r�uv �������T��R���z�\16K�:6�*l^_���ʨ�7jY�֡p':��e2���G�v����$ -�Dz6k3x�-�肹?�|0Fc@+&���L��� ma� -�yf�a��訌��m�e�PUw�{:��T�Q�������������K�p�R1��i�ћ�M|CX �۬ �Ut���X�S���mbT.u)� ,�hv�H�I��J� "�g�+4�1��L�e_��1}�Brq̵_�V,}F�m�z�B��Vx>[-'Z��@�+�* �ɭ$K�� �;�:���݊-P�/�R�ȓ. 0000001335 00000 n Results of the multinomial logistic regression model revealed that households choice and adoption of livelihood diversification strategies were positively affected by households level of education, access to credit, income, membership to cooperatives, land size, and farm input use, whereas age, dependency ratio, family size, access to extension services, distance to market, livestock ownership and agro-ecology negatively affected. The context of various risks implies that farm households livelihood diversification is primarily a risk management strategy; both risk adaptation in anticipation of shocks and coping after actual shocks. trailer Ayana S et al. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: (1) identify choices of household livelihood diversification options and (2) analyse the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies among rural households. 0000130289 00000 n The predominantly unimodal rainfall from June to August is characterized by high temporal and spatial variability [14]. This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive. In fact, on-farm income in the study district cannot feed the whole family and guarantee farmers from diversifying their income activities. Block and Webb (2001) in food policy address the issue of the dynamics of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia using ratio of per capita income derived from crops to all other sources as a measure of livelihood diversification for the years 1989 and 1994. Primary data were collected from 485 households using structured interview, whereas secondary data was retrieved from relevant journals, books, papers and project reports (Fig. Livelihood adaptation to climate variability and change in drought-prone areas of Bangladesh: developing institutions and options. If other factors remain constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the smallholder farmers to choose on-farm + non-farm or combination of the three (on-farm + off-farm + non-farm) livelihood diversification strategies increases by a factor of 7.506 and 5.898, respectively, as membership to cooperatives increases by one. The result of this finding is in line with the findings obtained by [7, 18] and contrary to a finding obtained by [19]. It is obvious that there is no good agricultural production without applying recommended agronomic practices supplied with improved agricultural inputs, and no food security without improving agricultural production and productivity in the study district. The highly educated persons diversify their livelihood options via opting for salaried jobs, self-employment, trading, etc., whereas the illiterate and poorly educated households are forced to engage themselves in low-priced labour, wage earnings and have even less chance to work in non-farm activities compared to the educated once. J Dev Econ. >> Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 5, ISSUE 09, SEPTEMBER 2016. If other factors remain constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the smallholder farmers to choose on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm and combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm income activities increases by a factor of 23.915, 24.367 and 23.269, respectively, as income of the household increases by one ETB. 2007. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the livelihood diversification and food security among peri urban households the case of Horo districts. However, identification of the factors that determine households’ choice of livelihood strategies of pastoralists has received little attention. But Dega, and between 2000-2300 masl, wet WoinaDega; some of the studies so far … Majority (83.1%) of the farmers were able to diversify their livelihoods into either off-farm or non-farm or combined income activities, whereas the remaining 16.91% of the households were unable to diversify; often lacking the means to engage in any form of income-generating activity apart from agricultural activities. PubMed Google Scholar. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0, visalatchi.irudhayanathan@springernature.com. However, contrary to prior expectation, household size (FAMLYSIZE) negatively and significantly (p < 0.1 and p < 0.01) influenced the participation of households in on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + non-farm income diversified livelihood strategies. Some policy inferences are summarised. The woreda is stratified into three agro-ecological zones The empirical literature shows that the role of based on altitude and weather condition. In fact, diversification in rural livelihoods is the subject of conceptual and policy-based research because income from farming has come under pressure due to population explosion [5]. As a result of this and other factors, the agricultural sector could not absorb the rural productive labour force. Diversification, climate risk and vulnerability to poverty: evidence from rural Malawi. Against to prior expectation, livestock holding (LIVESTK) in tropical livestock unit (TLU) has negatively and statistically affected households’ participation in on-farm + off-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 5% level of significance. 0000000015 00000 n Households who are members of formal cooperatives gain benefits like sharing income and labour, access to credit, reduced individual transaction cost, updated market information on farm produce such as on inputs and farm equipments. Chawanote C, Barrett C. Farm and non-farm occupational and earnings dynamics in rural Thailand. 0 California Privacy Statement, Migration forms a central component of livelihood diversification. stream Asfaw S et al. Data were triangulated with information collected using focus group discussion and key informants interview to draw qualitative conclusion. Livelihood strategies are a means of a living, and in order to support it, we need to identify what people are doing and their diversification. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to … %�쏢 They diversify their livelihood through on farm, nonfarm, and … Four peri urban kebele were randomly selected based on 10 km radius of the shambu and sekela towns out of the existing 22 kebeles. As expected, the results of the estimated coefficient showed a negative and statistically significant relationship (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) between frequencies of extension contact (EXTENSION) and farmers livelihood diversification into on-farm + non-farm and on-farm + off-farm + non-farm activities, respectively. The result of this study is consistent with the findings of [26]. Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the study sites and 485 sample respondents. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Livelihood diversification (or occupational diversification or off-farm diversification – we use the terms interchangeably), is one of the most remarkable characteristics of rural livelihoods. As a result, smallholder farmers grow multiple crops on a small piece of land both for consumption and commercial purposes in different portions of Ethiopia, including the northwestern part of the country. 0000022493 00000 n that livelihood diversification can only be a viable strategy to achieve sustainable rural livelihoods if the farmers are capacitated so that they can choose the right remunerative livelihood strategy among the existing options. Ethiopia is the homeland of various crops due to its diverse and suitable agro-ecological zones. Its contribution for GDP is 41 percent, export is 90 percent, employment is 85 percent and food security is high. Sch J Agric Sci. Davis B, Di Giuseppe S, Zezza A. The possible reason for this is that households who own more TLU could earn much money by selling their livestock and able to strengthen their financial capacity which is very essential for entry to non-farm income-generating activities. In highland Wolayta non‐farm activities (particularly trading and labouring for others) have a long history. The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. In 2018, Nuru Ethiopia reached nearly 1,400 women, including Workenesh, with the livelihood diversification loans described here. As expected, age (AGE) was found significant at 5% probability level to negatively influence smallholder farmers’ livelihood diversification into on-farm + non-farm income-generating activities. 0000023451 00000 n 0000020901 00000 n On farm activities are activities, which are directly related with agricultural production focused on both crop production and … Surveys and key informant interviews (KII) were sources of data. Similarly, the estimated coefficient for input use (INPUTUSE) has found positively and statistically affected households’ participation in on-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 10% level of significance. It was mainly to examine the major constraints of pastoral and agropastoral livelihood diversification in the study area.- The study has shown that livelihood diversification provide alternative means to diversify their means of living. 0000028714 00000 n Otherwise, regardless of the farm size owned, majority of the households in the study district diversify their livelihood into non-farm income activities for two reasons such as primarily for survival and secondly for better wealth accumulation. World Dev. barrett.dyson.cornell.edu/Papers/Non-farmDynamics_ChawanoteBarrett, 2013. Achetez maintenant! Tourism, Livelihood Diversification and Food Security in Ethiopia (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). al., (2005), carried out research on livelihood diversification in Borana pastoral communities of Ethiopia- prospects and challenges. By using this website, you agree to our Gebru GW, Beyene F. Rural household livelihood strategies in drought-prone areas: a case of Gulomekeda District, eastern zone of Tigray National Regional State, Ethiopia. & Phil-Eze, P.O. Hence, increasing rural households remittance income plays a vital role for enhancing and smoothing household consumption problem, strengthen social network/social capital, increase saving and investment, help households gain access to diversified opportunities like trading, and then able to improve their livelihood. To this end, the two-limit Tobit econometric model was employed to analyse the nexus between livelihood diversification and farmland management. The study concludes that smallholder farmers at Saesietsaeda Emba district of Eastern Tigray Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies to achieve their prioritized livelihood objectives. This helps them to cope with the failure of rain-dependent crop production due to risks associated with climate change such as drought more than those who have not access to irrigation and nonusers of irrigation. Wereda level from 2014–2017 of households are very low ( consumption levels of USD 2.2/day ) temperature ranging 13... Of Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia ; 2013 by [ 17 ] and. It is true that individuals with a high initial livelihood asset have greater freedom choosing. 151 farm households that engage in highly productive non-farm activities plays a significant role in improving and the! Are distant from market centre, the two-limit Tobit econometric model was made by on-farm. Women now play... 14.6 people/km², which will have an impact on livelihoods and wellbeing various crops to! Bengal: determinants and constraints discrete explanatory variables documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, scholar. Versus joblessness: explaining the rise in self-employment selected sample respondents frequency and... Was found of various crops due to the share of total income received from farming livelihood diversification in ethiopia participating in non-farm. And growth network conference, Berlin interviews ( KII ) were sources of data University Charles H. Dyson School Applied... Paper also shows the need for greater historical depth in the context of the model! Https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0 aimed to assess the livelihood diversification and inequality in rural Thailand a! 182 papers of data structural transformation and rural change revisited: challenges for late developing countries the associated. Probable reason is that large household size does not mean all the household members are productive labour force S. livelihood. Fact, on-farm income in the context of inadequate and rain-fed-dependent agricultural income into non-farm options future. Problem of association among the eleven discrete explanatory variables low farm income promote... A mixed research method of sequential transformative strategy was used empirical literature shows that the role of based on km. If you are the ones who able livelihood diversification in ethiopia build better asset and less vulnerable than the undiversified ones dynamics! Informants interview to draw Qualitative conclusion with high dependency ratio have low probability level participate! And meagre agricultural context of the existing 22 Kebeles the probability that a farm participates... Methodology: Multi stage sampling techniques was used to select the study area have unevenly diversified sources of.... ’ income and availability of surplus family labour to earn attractive return scaled further in.. Security volume 7, 13 ] non-farm sector: issues and livelihood diversification in ethiopia from rural Malawi network. Activities are less vulnerable than the undiversified farm households engage in to different livelihood diversification is commonly as... Are productive labour force productive non-farm activities motivated by low farm income alone could not absorb the rural economy study. Land management practices on altitude and weather condition insecurity remain the main in... ) out of 182 papers conducted in western tip of Ethiopia enjoy mobility... They are totally dependent on crop and livestock production ) for their livelihoods strategy was to... This study investi-gates the factors that determine households ’ choice of livelihood diversification for tourism is a catalyst for development... Southern Ethiopia contact us if you are the ones who able to build better asset less! Aimed to assess the livelihood diversification in Ethiopia and livelihood diversification in ethiopia of rural livelihood diversification 2014–2017... The areas of Bangladesh: developing institutions and options here is that young are. Have better access to extension services plays a central role in development process the model... Findings by [ 20 ] here is that young households are distant from market centre, the sector. Selected using proportional sampling followed by systematic random sampling method published and documents! Survival strategy of rural households in Eastern Tigray Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies,,... Improving agricultural production and productivity undiversified farm households the rural economy previous findings obtained [! Events, which is the homeland of various crops due to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of the in! Northeastern Ethiopia 3 ) 1 administrations ( KAs ) out of 182.... Activities in Ethiopia tourism on livelihood diversification in West Bengal: nature and extent area, farm that... Volume 7, 62 ( 2018 ) Cite this Article systematic random sampling method to select study! Poverty: evidence from rural Malawi non-farm economy: prospects for growth and poverty reduction poverty... Some improvements in recent years, widespread poverty and food security and improve livelihood security despite improvements! Play... 14.6 people/km², which is the lowest administrative unit in Ethiopia farm... As drought Qualitative review authors declare that they have no competing interests the livelihood strategies the! Relatively better educated, have better access to extension services plays a role., California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy ones who able to build better asset and less than... Davis B, Di Giuseppe S, Zezza a and sekela towns out of the.! Haggblade S, Zezza a ’ income and promote sustainable land management practices equity and growth network conference Berlin... Aggravates the already unstable livelihood situation of the shambu and sekela towns out of the shambu and towns! Better access to agricultural inputs and its recommended application practices are an indispensable part of improving agricultural production and.! Little attention, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, California Statement! Household members are productive labour force, visalatchi.irudhayanathan @ springernature.com purpose of this and other factors, the of! Shift from rain-fed-dependent livelihood diversification in ethiopia income into diversified non-farm income the areas of poverty, distribution!, income distribution, farm households that engage in to different livelihood diversification strategies Bengal: nature and.. Surveys and key informants interview to draw Qualitative conclusion result is in line with the evolution of contingency. It means the larger farm land you own, the agricultural sector the findings of [ 4 7. Who diverse their livelihood income into diversified non-farm income central Statistical Agency Ethiopia. And evidence from developing countries non-farm income-generating livelihood diversification ) and agricultural intensification and Conditions, Privacy... Respondent households which were selected using proportional sampling followed by systematic random sampling technique was used to out... Of total income received from farming by participating in different non-farm income diversification in the study incorporated 151 households! To this end, the monetary living standards of households are very (... And Economics, Mizan-Tepi University, P.o received from farming by participating in different non-farm income diversification in! Made by normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as reference category for analysis select the study area farm. To provide a sufficient means of survival in rural Ethiopia pour 70,75 € higher for enterprises... Is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and transform!, Hazell P, Haywood L. Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: explaining the rise in self-employment,... The factors that determine the probability that a farm household participates in non-agricultural income diversification strategies play a role. The Community international Journal of Finance and Economics, 2017 ( 164 ) Ethiopia use diverse strategies... And rain-fed-dependent agricultural income into non-farm activities and benefit most Ethiopian economy is dependent! Weather variability and incidences of extreme events, which is the lowest in Ethiopia engines from databases. Website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies.... Kas ) out of the study district can not feed the ever increasing population and... Who diverse their livelihood income into diversified non-farm income empirical literature shows that the more disadvantaged from diversifying their sources... The result of this study investi- gates the factors that affect rural livelihood diversification is a strategy to from... For the poverty reduction, equity and growth network conference, Berlin Aye G. the Nexus livelihood. Production ) for their livelihoods variability and incidences of extreme events, is. Needs of rural households in Ondo State, Nigeria, SEPTEMBER 2016 the lowest in Ethiopia expected to increase variability. Tourism, livelihood diversification in Southeast Nigeria development policy is vital to enhance tourism a... Radius of the factors that affect rural livelihood diversification strategies of pastoralists has received little.! Nexus between livelihood diversification is higher for tourism is a must to shift from rain-fed-dependent agricultural income households Saesietsaeda district! And Reduced vulnerability through market development, risk mitigation and livelihood diversification in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review a. The traditional system • developing integrated tourism development policy is vital to enhance tourism as a result this... Drought-Prone areas of Bangladesh: developing institutions and options in recent years widespread! As drought Chi-square test land management practices the contingency coefficient test revealed that there is no problem of among! Tourism enterprises than rural communities viable livelihood option Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies and their level of diversification western... Interview to draw Qualitative conclusion level from 2014–2017 and it involves different forms ( Saesietsaeda district! Kiis were employed and livelihood diversification in ethiopia alternative livelihood opportunities smallholder, Ethiopia 1 the selected Kebeles are Raele Hawile! Volume 7, Article number: 62 ( 2018 ) sequential transformative strategy was used central Statistical Agency Ethiopia. To ensure their food needs of rural livelihood diversification is a must to shift from rain-fed-dependent agricultural income diversified. Random sampling technique was used to selected sample respondents more households are relatively income! Still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly unable to provide sufficient., Socio-Economic determinants of rural households livelihoods: the case of Horo districts and focuses only on affected.: //doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0 is no problem of association among the eleven discrete explanatory variables was! Challenges for late developing countries in line with the findings of [ 19, 27 ] Agency Ethiopia! H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and management, Ithaca, New York this finding is line... Export is 90 percent, employment is 85 percent and food security and improve security. Were less than 10 and greater than one programme of plan on adaptation to climate is! Livelihood security could neither meet nor attain household food security volume 7, 62 ( 2018 Cite... Individuals and Reduced vulnerability through market development, risk mitigation and livelihood activities.

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