The Utah War (1857–1858), also known as the Utah Expedition, Utah Campaign, Buchanan's Blunder, the Mormon War, or the Mormon Rebellion was an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government.The confrontation lasted from May 1857 to July 1858. J Keith Melville, Theory and Practice of Church and State During the Brigham Young Era at 47–48. In the end, the Utah War started a slow decline for Mormon isolation and power in Utah. World War II. Upon learning that the Sierra passes were blocked for the winter, he immediately took a ship to San Pedro, the unimproved harbor for what is now Los Angeles. Dealing with a heavy snowfall and intense cold, the Mormon men built fortifications, dug rifle pits and dammed streams and rivers in preparation for a possible battle either that fall or the following spring. "[41] But more important to California and Oregon bound travelers was the third section that stated "Martial law is hereby declared to exist in this Territory...and no person shall be allowed to pass or repass into, through or from this territory without a permit from the proper officer."[41]. On August 30 and September 1, Young met with Native American delegations and "gave" them permission to take all of the livestock then on the northern and southern trails into California (the Fancher Party was at that time on the southern trail). [7][8][9] Other incidents of violence have also been linked to the Utah War, including an Indian attack on the Mormon mission of Fort Limhi in eastern Oregon Territory. The Nauvoo Legion fortified the narrowest sections of the canyon in case the army attempted to break through. In 1869 the Transcontinental Railroad was completed, and soon large numbers of "Gentiles" arrived in Utah to stay. Popular sovereignty, the defense of which had been a major cause of the Utah Expedition, was finally repudiated when the resolution of the slavery question sparked the American Civil War. Other articles where Utah War is discussed: Salt Lake City: History: officials led to the so-called Utah War of 1857–58, when General Albert Sidney Johnston’s troops marched through the city to establish Camp Floyd west of Utah Lake. Brigham Young intended to evacuate the Latter-day Saints to the Bitterroot Valley, which is now in Montana. It was also rumored in Washington that Mormons might try to retreat down the Colorado River and into Sonora. April 2017 marked the centennial of America’s entry into World War I, a defining conflict of the modern era. The stories of these "Runaway Officials" convinced the new President that the Mormons were nearing a state of rebellion against the authority of the United States. This event was later called the Mountain Meadows massacre and the motives behind the incident remain a mystery. Daniel H. Wells was a member of the Latter-day Saint First Presidency, commander of the Nauvoo Legion, and later mayor of Salt Lake City. Despite this, the confrontation was not bloodless. For nearly a decade the Mormons in Utah had relative peace and were free to practice their religion as they saw fit. Van Vliet's arrival in Salt Lake City was welcomed cautiously by the Mormon leadership. Why did they call it the Cold War? Le Roy Reuben Hafen; Ann Woodbury Hafen (1958). DONALD L. MOORMAN & GENE A. Utah's role in the World War II was at the heart of these changes. The two main countries that were so-called enemies were the United States and the Soviet Union. Historian Harold Schindler states that his mission was to contact Governor Young and inform him of the expedition's mission: to escort the new appointees, to act as a Posse comitatus and to establish at least two and perhaps three new U.S. Army camps in Utah. 4 (2018). The Utah War. Though bloodshed was to be avoided, and the U.S. government also hoped that its purpose might be attained without the loss of life, preparations were made for war. On June 19, a newly arrived reporter for the New York Herald somewhat inaccurately wrote, "Thus was peace made – thus was ended the 'Mormon war', which...may be thus historisized: – Killed, none; wounded, none; fooled, everybody. James Strang, a rival to Brigham Young who also claimed succession to the leadership of the church after the death of Joseph Smith, elevated these fears by proclaiming himself a king and resettled his followers on Beaver Island (Lake Michigan), after the main body of the LDS Church had fled to Utah. Buchanan's proclamation was also unpopular among the Mormon rank and file. Mormon Elias Blackburn recorded in his journal, The roads are crowded with the Saints moving south. [15] When gold was discovered in California, in 1848 at Sutter's Mill, which sparked the famous California Gold Rush, thousands of immigrants began moving west on trails that passed directly through territory settled by Mormon pioneers. This second proclamation received wide circulation throughout the Territory and was delivered by messenger to Col. Alexander with the approaching army. [43] In addition, through October and November, between 1,200 and 2,000 militiamen were stationed in Echo Canyon and Weber Canyon. Additionally, LDS Church leaders counseled Latter-day Saints to use ecclesiastical arbitration to resolve disputes amongst church members before resorting to the more explicit legal system. This belief often led Mormon pioneers to elect ecclesiastical leaders to political office. By the time Governor Cumming was securely placed in office, the Utah War had become an embarrassment for President Buchanan. Upon reaching Utah in early June, they found Young and his colleagues willing to accept forgiveness for past offenses in exchange for accepting Cumming and the establishment of an army garrison in the territory. By 1860 sectional strife split the Democratic Party into northern and southern wings, indirectly leading to the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In early August, Young re-activated the Nauvoo Legion. The treaty ceded to the United States the land that now comprises the states of California, Utah, and Nevada, as well as parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Colorado. [44], Meanwhile, George Alonzo Johnson, a merchant who had an established business transporting goods by steamship between the Colorado River Delta and Fort Yuma, was upset that he had not been awarded command of the expedition's original exploratory mission. In the absence of formal notification of administration intentions, Young and other Mormon leaders interpreted the army’s coming as religious persecution and adopted a defensive posture. One consequence of the Utah War was the creation of the famous Pony Express. But determined to fulfill his orders to enter the Territory, he decided to move around the Mormon defenses and enter Utah from the north along the Bear River. He also reported that they were ready to burn their homes and destroy their crops, and that the route through Echo Canyon would be a death trap for a large body of troops. February 26, 1858.--Referred to the Committee on territories",, Journal of Discourses Delivered by President Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, "Loose in the Stacks: A Half-Century with the Utah War and Its Legacy",, "Utah War Broke Hold Mormons Had on Utah",,,, "Utah Territory: Message of the President of the United States, Communication, in Compliance with a Resolution of the House, Copies of Correspondence Relative to the Condition of Affairs in the Territory of Utah ...", Donna Ramos, "Utah War: U.S. Government Versus Mormon Settlers", Length of U.S. participation in major wars, Peter Crawley, "The Constitution of the State of Deseret". 1 John Gary Maxwell’s The Civil War Years in Utah is the latest addition to that small but growing list. 3 Timeline of events. On July 28, 1857, U.S. Army Captain Stewart Van Vliet, an assistant quartermaster, and a small escort were ordered to proceed directly from Kansas to Salt Lake City, ahead of the main body of troops. Kane and Cumming came to the Mormon capital in early April. The Mormon War, otherwise known as the Utah War or Mormon Rebellion, describes the violence surrounding an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the U.S. Army, which lasts from March 1857 to July 1858. It resulted from misunderstandings that transformed a simple decision to give Utah Territory a new governor into a year-long comedy of errors with a tragic potential. He therefore granted Kane unofficial permission to attempt mediation, although he held little hope for the success of negotiations. It was the start of the campaign to liberate Europe and defeat Germany. Still, it was a relocation that dwarfed the earlier flights from Missouri and Illinois; approximately 30,000 people moved fifty miles or more to Provo and the other towns in central and southern Utah. During the war, Lot Smith and the Nauvoo Legion burned roughly fifty-two wagons belonging to outfitters Russell, Majors and Waddell. What Year Did The Cold War End ? It was assaulted on June 6, 1944, by elements of the U.S. 4th Infantry Division and was taken with relatively few casualties. The Black Hawk War erupted as a result of the pressures white expansion brought to Native American populations. He obtained an escort of soldiers commanded by Lt. James A. Members of the Hudson's Bay Company and the British government feared that the Mormons planned to seek refuge on Vancouver Island off the coast of British Columbia. Young had generally adopted a policy of conversion and conciliation towards native tribes. While there were casualties, mostly non-Mormon civilians, the "war" had no battles, and was resolved through negotiation. The reason it started was because of a misunderstanding. However, overall command was assigned to Col. Albert Sidney Johnston who did not leave Kansas until much later. Colonel Johnston took command of the combined U.S. forces in early November, but by this time the command was hampered by a lack of supplies, animals, and the early onset of winter. Despite Young's efforts, Native Americans attacked Mormon settlements during the course of the Utah War, including a raid on Fort Limhi on the Salmon River in Oregon Territory in February 1858 and attacks in Tooele County just west of Great Salt Lake City. The war is significant to the settlement of the west as it allowed the government to pass two important acts. The Utah War: Nearly bloodless, but still painful. The Utah War. Because of Harney's unavailability, Col. Edmund Alexander was charged with the first detachment of troops headed for Utah. Mormons state of mind was further alarmed when they learned in late June 1857 that LDS Apostle Parley P. Pratt had recently been murdered while serving a mission in Arkansas. The next day twenty-four … Young capitulated, at least outwardly. An army advancing up the Colorado River would cut off this escape route. [57] The all Mormon grand jury refused an indictment citing a lack of evidence for Young's marriage to Amelia Folsom in January of that year.[58]. Firearms were manufactured or repaired by the Mormons, scythes were turned into bayonets, and long-unused sabres were burnished and sharpened. In early July, the Mormons from the northern settlements began to return to their homes after it was clear that no more reinforcements were being sent into Utah from either the east or west. Young announced the approach of the army to a large group of Latter-day Saints gathered in Big Cottonwood Canyon for Pioneer Day celebrations on July 24, 1857. However, the President would not wait. It seems that Kane successfully convinced Young to accept Buchanan's appointment of Cumming as Territorial governor, although Young had expressed his willingness to accept such terms at the very beginning of the crisis. 100 years ago Thursday, the U.S. declared entry into World War I. Gen. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., who led the 4th Infantry Division while relying on a cane to walk. President Young had the flagpole placed on the hillside east of the Lion House, and the United States flag flew from it for many years. While Mormons believe in the principles of classical liberalism as found in the U.S. Constitution, Mormon political thought continues to be influenced by a concept dubbed "Theodemocracy." Congress, over almost unanimous Republican opposition, authorized two new volunteer regiments, and Buchanan, Secretary of War John B. Floyd, and Army Chief of Staff Winfield Scott assigned 3,000 additional regular troops to reinforce the Utah Expedition. Popular pages. Utah war | MormonWikia | Fandom. I am feeding 100 men, all hard at work. Historians Allen and Leonard write: Senator Sam Houston of Texas strenuously opposed the Utah Expedition. Firmage, Edwin Brown; Mangrum, Richard Collin (2001). It was an expensive war between the Mormon people in Utah and the government and army of the United States. The "Aiken massacre" took place the following month. Instead, he settled his troops into ill-equipped winter camps designated Camp Scott and Eckelsville, near the burned-out remains of Fort Bridger, now in the state of Wyoming. Buchanan also decided to send a force of 2,500 army troops to build a post in Utah and to act as a Posse comitatus once the new governor had been installed. Field crops had been ignored for most of the two-month long planting season and livestock herds had been culled for the journey. Young was willing to support Cumming as governor, but he still feared persecution and violence if the army entered Utah. Johnston was soon joined by the 2nd Dragoons commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Philip St. George Cooke, who had accompanied Alfred Cumming, Utah's new governor, and a roster of other federal officials from Fort Leavenworth. Fortunately, the lull in hostilities during the winter provided an opportunity for negotiations, and direct confrontation was avoided. Fortunately, the near isolation of Camp Floyd kept interaction to a minimum, as troops stayed on or near their base. Iowans at Home Support the War. The U.S. Congress created the Utah Territory as part of the Compromise of 1850. The Expedition's cavalry, the 2nd Dragoons, was kept in Kansas for the same reason. It sounds outlandish now, but the United States went to war with Mormons in the late 1850s. In Buchanan's State of the Union address earlier in the month, he had taken a hard stand against the Mormon rebellion, and had actually asked Congress to enlarge the size of the regular army to deal with the crisis. When Johnston’s army marched through a deserted Salt Lake City on 26 June 1858 and then went on to build Camp Floyd forty miles to the southwest, the Utah War was over. Young's strategies to defend the Saints vacillated between all-out war, a more limited confrontation, and retreat. The Utah War. September 18, 1857: Col. Johnston and his troops leave. BYU and Utah played a pretty fascinating Holy War Saturday night. The Utah War, also known as the Utah Expedition,[1] Utah Campaign,[2] Buchanan's Blunder,[3] the Mormon War,[4] or the Mormon Rebellion[5] was an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government. The Mormons, fearful that the large U.S. military force had been sent to annihilate them[citation needed], made preparations for defense. This included permitting Johnston's Army into the Territory. Contents: 1 Background. Philip St. George Cooke, who had led the Mormon Battalion during the Mexican War, merely bared his head in respect. However, once the Civil War was concluded and slavery was ended, the federal government turned its eye back to Utah to end the other “relic of barbarism,” polygamy, or plural marriage. The commissioners further assured that the government would not interfere with their religion. Most visited articles. In the 1820s Joseph Smith started the Mormon religion in New York state. By the time they returned with negative reports, the Utah War was over. Utah veterans remember the final days of conflict and the spontaneous explosion of joy at the end of World War II in Utah World War II Stories: VICTORY! 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