%PDF-1.4 %���� However, this would miss the changing incentives to overharvest which are derived from beyond the forest institution, for example, if the community were to simultaneously be gain- 0000030723 00000 n 0000565937 00000 n 0000006243 00000 n SQ2: What is the role of social capital in peoples livelihood outcomes? Since empowerment is multi-dimensional, and women empowered in one dimension are not necessarily empowered in the other, it is essential to evaluate the significance of the various forms of women empowerment on their livelihood outcomes, in order to inform policy. Livelihood and environmental outcomes: In this component, the analysis focuses on common livelihood and environmental outcomes, both positive and negative, resulting from the production of rubber. 0000031012 00000 n @�rq���E\�;:�eء�8$ZA���E�[Y@���"��� �w�X' c���A�)�ᔃ(�MkH��ʃU��w����X� $%�320la�a�8�$������`���"���Qف!���qv#�Nc�a������U�jN002_`xǐ��(�PŠ���A��&)�L�:l�S�6�:�ff`�5b�_��x@� ��� 0000566306 00000 n This study explores the livelihood strategies and outcomes of fisher folks in However, regarding Livelihood programming there is still the need to have commonly agreed evidence-based standard indicators to facilitate quality project design and results assessment. 9 �䑌��-��[���8���[�����`qp8X��В�%a�g�0�3A��� L�L&x&�c-yZZ�$. livelihoods and emphasises that sustainability has different dimensions: • economic (for example, the functioning of markets and credit supply) • social (networks of reciprocity, gender equity) The Oxfam livelihoods framework Vulnerability context • Trends • Seasonality • Shocks Livelihood capital Livelihood outcomes • more income trailer These are associated with all types of livelihoods interventions and with all their phases (emergency, post-emergency, recovery and development). %%EOF 0000003130 00000 n 0000007899 00000 n Livelihood Outcomes Livelihood outcomes are the achievements or outputs of livelihood strategies, such as more income, increased well-being, reduce vulnerability, improved food security and a more sustainable use of natural resources. Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. 0000003415 00000 n to diversify their income and livelihood strategies both to manage or reduce their risks and to expand or take advantage of synergies across different income generation activities (Barrett, Reardon et al. 0000017190 00000 n Livelihood 0000016958 00000 n 0000066256 00000 n IMPROVING LIVELIHOOD OUTCOMES FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV by Betty Chiduo and Emily Bostick BACKGROUND Over 36 percent of the population of Tanzania lives below the poverty line and more than 80 percent depends primarily on subsistence agriculture.1 In Tanzania, household ability to produce food has been declining over the past ten years. J9$bez����Aq�����?��x ��,&�!p�5Hpy��� �m|;'�����eq8���bP�wf�Y���/Am�K����_ޡU�0���GFx�Z���_,��" �g��O��gv�7'��ͳk�R ��II54� 0000065335 00000 n 0000007760 00000 n 0000565527 00000 n For those living in poverty, livelihood strategies are usually varied and often complex. smallholding, contract farming and concessions. The Key Livelihoods Programme Indicators are a standardised list of 22 Outcome Indicators for the livelihoods sector. {13.2.1, 13.3} • Changing climate trends lead to shifts in rural livelihoods with mixed outcomes, such as from crop-based to hybrid livestock-based 0000031585 00000 n In conclusion, the Resilience and Livelihoods Change in Tigray, Ethiopia Bapu Vaitla,1 Girmay Tesfay,2 Megan Rounseville,1 Daniel Maxwell1 October 2012 1 Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, 114 Curtis Street, Somerville MA, USA 2 Department of Natural Resources Economics and Management, College of Dryland Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mekelle University, P.O. 0000051995 00000 n 0000031434 00000 n 0000001506 00000 n 0000010326 00000 n 0000003954 00000 n Specifically, positive and negative outcomes are examined for different modes of production, i.e. To examine the characteristics of rural livelihoods which distinguish them from other forms of livelihood and which need special attention from analysts, development practitioners, and policy-makers. 0000046837 00000 n 9 9����BNCN!�!��ӐS�i�)�4�rr 325 0 obj <> endobj 0000052146 00000 n Only when all of this is considered can it be possible to develop strategies that help enhance livelihood (i.e. The assessment of livelihood outcomes was based on a 10-yr period, with an indicative reference period of 1990 to 2000. LIVELIHOOD INTERVENTIONS 22 5.1 General Livelihood Interventions 22 5.2 The Livelihood Pathway 22 5.3 Specific Livelihood Interventions for Households Located at Different Outcomes on the Livelihood Pathway 25 5.4 Targeting Livelihood Interventions to More Vulnerable Groups 28 6. The assumption is that these planned outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood assets and make them more resilient. This study explores the livelihood strategies and outcomes of fisher folks in rural coastal communities. 325 59 But this guide defines livelihoods more broadly, by referring to the comprehensive framework that comprises 4.2 The Impact of Livelihood and Food Security on HIV/AIDS 20 5. Potential livelihood outcomes include more income, increased well-being, reduced vulnerability, improved food security, sustainable use of natural resource base, … 0000066008 00000 n endstream endobj 382 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[51 274]/Length 31/Size 325/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream 0000013782 00000 n Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour marketsor la… While livelihood strategies of the poorest often still depend primarily on agricultural activities, Livelihood strategy Livelihood strategy approach to community-based planning and assessment: a case study of Molas, Indonesia Jennifer Walker, Bruce Mitchell and Susan Wismer A livelihood strategy is an organized set of life-style choices, goals and values, and activities influenced by biophysical, political/legal, econo- 0000071239 00000 n increased adaptability to climate change, food security, poverty reduction) (Morse and McNamara 2013). It refers to the legitimate distribution of rights and power, and how illicit operations of power can frustrate efforts of the poor to access and defend entitlements. 0000018014 00000 n of livelihood indicators used in the analysis. The 10-yr period was deemed Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. <<3D3C7144ABDF9A4FA09FF903C76265AA>]/Prev 1015903/XRefStm 2108>> 0000014885 00000 n Keywords: Outcomes-Based Education, Higher education, Home Economics, Technology and Livelihood Education, Physical facilities/resources, Educational policy and administration, Lifelong learning, 21st century skills, Curriculum implementation 1. Livelihood outcomes or goals Livelihood outcomes can be categorized under th ree headings: economic, biological and social. Uniting forest and livelihood outcomes? As there are often no baseline data regarding livelihood status, the assessment relies on the expert judgment of changes on indicators. 2 GUIDANCE ON LIVELIHOODS PROGRAMMING IN EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND RECOVERY CONTETS In the humanitarian context, it is common to define a livelihood project purely in terms of the economic reinforcement activities it supports. the ability to acquire sufficient food and income to meet basic needs, is essentially an economic outcome. The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. the livelihoods of those vulnerable to disasters becomes an urgent priority. 0000002108 00000 n pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). 0000047310 00000 n 0000065628 00000 n 0000003274 00000 n By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. Livelihood strategies aim to achieve livelihood outcomes. 0000003981 00000 n These include its lack of inclusion of power dynamics which can influence access to livelihoods Changes in land use from swidden (shifting cultivation) agriculture to smallholder tree‐dominated areas producing timber, fruits and cash crops can result in changing livelihood outcomes for rural communities. h�bb�f`b``Ń3� ���j � k� Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia Demographic changes are a driver for governments of developing countries to implement new policies that counter the negative socioeconomic impacts associated with an ageing population generate positive livelihood outcomes). 0000052065 00000 n 0000014285 00000 n 0000002437 00000 n For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. further political or economic positions, which in turn affects livelihood options and outcomes (Baumann and Sinha 2001).

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